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Title A Fair Channel Hopping Scheme for LoRa Networks with Multiple Single-Channel Gateways
Author Alexandre Figueiredo, Miguel Luís, André Zúquete
Journal Sensors
Volume 22
Number 14
Pages 19
Month July
Year 2022
DOI 10.3390/s22145260
Group Information Systems and Processing
Group (before 2015) Information Systems and Telematics Laboratory
Indexed by ISI Yes

LoRa is one of the most prominent LPWAN technologies due to its suitable characteristics for supporting large-scale IoT networks, as it offers long-range communications at low power consumption. The latter is granted mainly because end-nodes transmit directly to the gateways and no energy is spent in multi-hop transmissions. LoRaWAN gateways can successfully receive simultaneous transmissions on multiple channels. However, such gateways can be costly when compared to simpler single-channel LoRa transceivers, and at the same time they are configured to operate with pure-ALOHA, the well-known and fragile channel access scheme used in LoRaWAN. This work presents a fair, control-based channel hopping-based medium access scheme for LoRa networks with multiple single-channel gateways. Compared with the pure-ALOHA used in LoRaWAN, the protocol proposed here achieves higher goodput and fairness levels because each device can choose its most appropriate channel to transmit at a higher rate and spending less energy. Several simulation results considering different network densities and different numbers of single-channel LoRa gateways show that our proposal is able to achieve a packet delivery ratio (PDR) of around 18% for a network size of 2000 end-nodes and one gateway, and a PDR of almost 50% when four LoRa gateways are considered, compared to 2% and 6%, respectively, achieved by the pure-ALOHA approach

Keywords: low power wide-area networks; large-scale LoRa networks; single-channel LoRa gateways